As a refractory material: graphite and its products have the properties of high-temperature resistance and high intensity, thus it is used to produce graphite crucible in the metallurgical industry. In steel-making, graphite is used as the protective agent of steel ingot and lining of the metallurgical furnace.
As conducting material: graphite has an electrical conductivity 100 times higher than general nonmetal minerals. Its thermal con-ductivity is better than some metal materials such as steel, iron, and lead. In the electrical industry, it is used to produce electrodes, carbon brushes, carbon rods, carbon tubes, positive electrodes for the mercury rectifiers, graphite washers, telephone components, and coatings for television kinescopes.
As wear-resistant lubricating material: graphite is used as lubricant in the mechanical industry.
Graphite has great chemical stability: special processing can give graphite the characteristics of corrosion resistance, great thermal conductivity, and low permeability. Graphite is used in the manufacturing of heat exchangers, reaction tanks, condensers, combustion chambers, absorption towers, coolers, heaters, filters, and pump equipment.
Graphite is also utilized in various industries such as petrochemical engineering, hydrometallurgy, acid-base production, synthetic fiber, and papermaking, as it can save a large amount of metal materials.
Graphite is used as casting, foundry, molding, and high-temperature metallurgy material.
Graphite is also utilized in the nuclear industry. A neutron moderator of graphite can be used in the atomic reactor; uranium-graphite reactors are currently a very common type of atomic reactor. In an atomic reactor, which is used in dynamics, the moderating materials should have the properties of high melting point, stability, and corrosion resistance; graphite satisfies all of these requirements. Graphite used in the atomic reactor should have very high purity, and its impurity content should be no more than dozens of PPM, and in particular, its content of boron should be less than 0.5PPM.
Graphite is used in the national defense industry as well. Graphite is utilized to produce nozzle of the rocket of solid fuel, missile nose cone, components of space navigation equipment, heat insulating material, and anti-radiation material.